Logical Reasoning

Closed 98 days over

Question details:

Laird: Pure research provides us with new technologies that contribute to saving lives. Even more worthwhile than this, however, is its role in expanding our knowledge and providing new, unexplored ideas.

Kim: Your priorities are mistaken. Saving lives is what counts most of all. Without pure research, medicine would not be as advanced as it is.

Laird and Kim disagree on whether pure research

a. derives its significance in part from its providing new technologies

b. expands the boundaries of our knowledge of medicine

c. should have the saving of human lives as an important goal

d. has its most valuable achievements in medical applications

e. has any value apart from its role in providing new technologies to save lives


Executive: We recently ran a set of advertisements in the print version of a travel magazine and on that magazine’s website. We were unable to get any direct information about consumer response to the print ads. However, we found that consumer response to the ads on the website was much more limited than is typical for website ads. We concluded that consumer response to the print ads was probably below par as well.

The executive’s reasoning does which one of the following?

a. bases a prediction of the intensity of a phenomenon on information about the intensity of that phenomenon’s cause

b. uses information about the typical frequency of events of a general kind to draw a conclusion about the probability of a particular event of that kind

c. infers a statistical generalization from claims about a large number of specific instances

d. uses a case in which direct evidence is available to draw a conclusion about an analogous case in which direct evidence is unavailable

e. bases a prediction about future events on facts about recent comparable events


Political scientist: As a political system, democracy does not promote political freedom. There are historical examples of democracies that ultimately resulted in some of the most oppressive societies. Likewise, there have been enlightened despotisms and oligarchies that have provided a remarkable level of political freedom to their subjects.

The reasoning in the political scientist’s argument is flawed because it

a. confuses the conditions necessary for political freedom with the conditions sufficient to bring it about     

b. fails to consider that a substantial increase in the level of political freedom might cause a society to become more democratic

c. appeals to historical examples that are irrelevant to the causal claim being made

d. overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it

e. bases its historical case on a personal point of view

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